Apple Podcasts takes up to 24 hours to show new episodes once you add them to your RSS feed. If after 24 hours you still don't see your new episode:
After submission, your podcast will be reviewed by Apple for approval. If your podcast is approved, you will be sent a confirmation email with a link to your podcast on iTunes Store. This podcast link will be live shortly after this email has been sent. Your podcast will become searchable in Apple Podcasts after is indexes, which may take up to 24 hours. Sign into Podcasts Connect to view the status of your podcast.
Once approved, podcasts are available on Podcasts and Apple Podcasts in all App Store countries. Some podcasts are not available in China. Explicit podcasts are not available in India and some Muslim countries.
Note that Top Podcasts and Top Episodes charts are localized by country.